Home of the North River Mills Society
for Antiquarian Arts and the Diffusion of Knowledge

Draft as of 2001
Note: some of these sections may be outdated; all are incomplete
Application for listing in the
National Register of Historic Places

Final approved application can be found at the W.V.S.H.P.O. web site
Click here for the .pdf file.


A. Name of Multiple Property Listings

North River Mills

One Room School House
House beside Church

Miller House
Miller Mill
Shanholtz Mill
Half of Kump Cemetery

Gilson [Lancia, Sisa, ?]
Kump house
Half of Kump Cemetery

North River Mills Grocery

Yellow house

Snapp Mill

Croston House

United Methodist Church
North River Mills United Methodist Church

B. Associated Historic Context

Enter name of historic contexts related to the multiple property submission and used in preparing the multiple property form


Great Wagon Road
North River Wagon Road

North River Mills United Methodist Church
One room Schoolhouse
Surveying land
Military (French & Indian War and Civil War)

North River Mills Grocery
Blacksmith Shop (Frederick Kump)
Miller Inn/Bar
Three Grain Mills
Livery Stable (Snapp House)

C. Form Prepared By

Name/Title- CCHall      Date-
Organization-       Telephone- (304)496-7218 or (304)822-6455
Street and number - PO Box 130
City or Town- Augusta      State- WV

D. Certification

This form is completed by state Historic Preservation Officer or Federal Preservation Officer

E. Statement of Historic Contexts
Written narrative of Historic Contexts


Three grinding mills

Last grinding mill operates during early 1800's

Snapp Mill closed/blown up to put road through

1936 Heavy snow collapsed the Miller Mill


1751 George Washington surveyed

1753 Thomas Parker's land grant 273 acres

Sarah Gibbons kidnapped

Virginia Militia and small band if Indians fight and force settlers off their land

Settlement in the area was encouraged after peace by Lord Fairfax

War of Rebellion North River Mills had several small incidents

1802 Kump House built

1818 Gustavus Croston walked to Richmond

1893 Church built

1933 School closed


First road west Great Wagon Road from Winchester North River Wagon Road

Northwest Turnpike complete

1930's North River Road 4/2 main road for Hampshire county

F. Associated Property Types

property type provide:
statement of significance
registration requirements

two barns

Miller Barn
red, wooden
two story
three doors

G. Geographical Data

State of West Virginia
Eastern Panhandle
Hampshire County
North River Mills
North River, Hiett's Run,
Spring Field Grade, North River Road 4/2
Ice Mountain

Great Wagon Road
North River Wagon Road

H. Summary of Identification and Evaluation Methods

Discuss the methods used in developing the multiple property listing

I. Major Bibliographical References

List major written works and primary location of documentation, state historic Preservation office, other state agency, Federal agency, local government, university, or other specifying repository


Frontier Forts Along the Potomac and Its Tributaries, by William Ansel [a well documented reference to colonial Virginia frontier forts, the work does have some mistakes as certain types of records were not researched and this subject is a very difficult one to get contemporary, authoritative information on; no other work covers the subject as extensively.]

History of Hampshire County, West Virginia, From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present; by Hu Maxwell and H. L. Swisher; A. Brown Boughner, Morgantown, WV, 1897 (reprinted by McClain Printing Company, Parsons, WV, 1972) [This is the most important and complete history of the county; although much of the information is anecdotal, no researcher can afford to overlook this source. Covers periods from earliest days to late 1800s.]

A History of the Valley of Virginia by Samuel Kercheval, Woodstock, Va., 1850 [This is one of the most important sources for research on the colonial Virginia northern frontier; although much of the information is anecdotal, it does contain information and stories found no where else. Kercheval was broadly copied by later authors.]

***The Virginia Frontier, 1754-1763; by Louis K. Koontz; Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1925. [reprint: Heritage Books, Bowie, MD, 1992. (301)390-7709] [Gives a very well coordinated and documented history of the era of the French and Indian War on the Colonial Virginia frontier.]

Capon Valley: Its Pioneers and Descendants, 1698-1940; by Maud Pugh; originally published in two volumes in 1946 and 1948. (republished as a single indexed volume) [Miss Pugh often refers to items for which no current documents are available; although her work has some of the mistakes and inconsistencies of early genealogies and anecdotal histories, her work is among the most important sources for Hampshire County genealogies and family histories.]

*** George Washington and the Virginia Backcountry; ed. by Warren Hofstra; Madison House Publishers, Madison, WI, 1998 [This is a new book which deals in depth with the area of Hampshire County in Washington's day and his effect on it and its effect on him. There are two chapters of special interest: one on Washington the surveyor and the other on Washington's experience as Commander of the Virginia Regiment during the French and Indian War.]

***Historical Records of Old Frederick and Hampshire Co., Va.; by Wilmer L. Kerns; [Contains genealogical information on the Edwards and other early Hampshire County families.]

Early Records Hampshire County Virginia Now West Virginia; by Clara McCormack Sage and Laura Sage Jones; Genealogical Publishing Co. Inc. Baltimore, Md., 1969 [ Includes wills, grants and deeds of Hampshire County, WV.]

"War and Heartbreak in the North River and Cacapon Valleys", The West Virginia Avocate, 15, February, 1990

"Charles Miller, Keeper of the Keys", The West Virginia Avocate, 5 April 1982

Hall, Charles C. and Stephanie L. Bailes. "Old wagon road discovered." Hampshire Review
8 September 1993: 12C [ Gives information on locating Fort Thomas Parker and the Old wagon road]

Bailes, Stephanie L. "North River Mills Big in History." Hampshire Review 21 April 1999:1B
[Report about past lives in North River Mills]

Kesner, Don. " North River Mills Days" Hampshire Review 16 June 1999: 1B [ Gives a sampling of modern life in North River Mill]

A Brief Look at North River Mills; Bailes, Stephanie L. and Charles C. Hall; North River Mills, West Virginia., 1993
[A summary of event in North River Mills]

Section ?: List of properties and their descriptions: [see deed references]

One Room School House

Owners - Clark


Doors - 1

Stories- 1 and attic

Exterior - wooden



Owners- Methodist Church

Windows- 8

Doors- 1

Stories- 1 with a balcony

Exterior- white wooden siding

House Beside the Church

Owners- Clark



Stories- 2 with an attic

Exterior - white wooden siding (built by ? Morland who also built the church)


Outbuildings- 1

Barns- 1

Outhouse - 1

Porches-2 (screened and open)


Miller House

Owners- Bailes

Windows- 27

Doors- 7

Stories - 2 with an attic

Exterior- white wooden siding

Out buildings- 4

Barns- 1

Outhouse- 1

Porches- 3 (screened, patio, open)


Miller Mill

Owners- Bailes

Windows- 1

Doors- 1

Stories- 1 (original had 3)

Exterior- wooden, stone foundation


Kump House

Owners- Gilson (outdated)

Windows - 14

Doors- 3 (I cellar door)

Stories- 2 with an attic and cellar

Exterior- restored log structure

Outbuildings- 1

Porches- 3


Kump Cemetery

Owners - Gilson/ Bailes


wall surounds it


Shanholtz Mill

Owners- Bailes

Exterior- cement foundation


North River Mills Grocery

Owners- Werth



Stories- 2

Exterior- Wooden siding

Outbuildings- 1



Yellow House (now white)

Owner- Hall

windows- 10 (unusual 1/2 over 1 windows on first floor front)

Doors- 3

Stories- 2 with a crawl space

Exterior- yellow wooden siding; porch on front and one side


Croston House

Owner- Scott/Muse




Exterior- white wooden siding

Outbuildings- 2

Barns- 1

Outhouse- 1

Porches- 2


Snapp Mill site (nothing remains except hint of raceway and foundation)

Owners- Baker

only a few rocks from the foundation remains



A. Initial settlement of a frontier
Thomas Parker - a George Washington survey

expansion of transportation - was on main colonial road but in 1830s the Northwest Turnpike bypasses this community

Civil War (several skirmishes or incidents)

Industrial Revolution

B. Historic Persons:

George Washington

C. Best example of 19th and 20th century rural architecture in Hampshire County

Two double log houses (Miller and Snapp House); single log home: store; church, yellow house


2001 Charles C. Hall  update:5/8/15